Multilingualism and cultural diversity are an inherent characteristic of human society so that it is difficult to speak of a monolingual society or culture, in all countries, different languages ​​and cultures coexist to such an extent. Moroccan society is no exception, and throughout its history, ancient civilizations have coexisted with the Amazigh civilization, which has been witnessed by history as the first civilization in North Africa, so what are the languages of Morocco

What language is spoken in morocco

The Arab-Islamic civilization

Throughout its history and thanks to its strategic location, Morocco has been a transit zone, where great civilizations have flocked: Phoenician, Byzantine, Roman, Arab-Islamic … It coexisted with the “indigenous peoples”, and there was a mix, take and give, and the trans cultures overlapped with the local cultures. The Arab-Islamic civilization is the most important civilization that has crossed Morocco for many centuries, and it is still today, where Islam and the Arabic language are part of the Moroccan identity.

While most states (especially during the last two decades of the 20th century) have worked to combat multilingualism and cultural diversity by adopting official languages ​​rather than an official language, Morocco has not yet a clear vision of this pluralism, and its language policy is not clear enough (if it is true to speak of language policy in Morocco), despite the changes that took place at the turn of the third millennium after the political confinement of ‘part of the Berbercultural movement and the work to teach it in primary education, so we see the need to stand up On the linguistic situation in Morocco to determine the place of the Berbers in the dominant linguistic map.

Multilingualism and cultural diversity are an inherent characteristic of human society so that it is difficult to speak of a monolingual society or culture, in all countries, different languages ​​and cultures coexist to such an extent. Moroccan society is no exception, and throughout its history, ancient civilizations have coexisted with the Berber civilization, which has been witnessed by history as the first civilization in North Africa.

The linguistic situation in Morocco

Language is a social and cultural character, not only a tool for communication, it is a tool for transmitting values ​​and expression of social life, the basis of collective and individual identity, a symbol of cultural heritage and bearer of knowledge and its transmission, as well as a socialization tool, through which the behavior and personality model is determined, and the individual cannot create and think outside of himself so that the function language must be determined: is language a simple tool for the consumption of preparation and knowledge is it a tool of creativity?

The role and status of language in Morocco

Languages of Morocco and cultural diversity

The role and status of language can only be determined by its function so that some interested in the subject continue to talk about the fact that the linguistic question in Morocco can be approached from three levels: the universal language, the national-official language, and mother tongue.

The linguistic situation of Morocco is characterized by existing multilingualism which nobody denies, and total chaos which makes the languages ​​coexist within it, each language working to ensure its location, its role, and its status, and to monopolize its geographical areas. It is a situation in which the dominant public policy has contributed, and the West of today coexists: the Amazighs (rural, Tashselhit), as well as Arabic (colloquia including Hasina), classical Arabic (or classic according to the words of colonial sociology), and foreign languages: French, Spanish, and English, what future for all these languages ​​in Morocco?

Moroccan language status

He used to determine the status and status of languages ​​through their functions, where most of the theses were based on Arabic to religious affairs, and to education, in part, in a decent way at the administration and the media, while French was assigned to the economy, administration, education, and foreign policy, while Spanish remained in circulation within the borders of certain northern regions and some southern regions formerly colonized by Spain, while English was too late. Amazighs and familiar Arabs were considered a daily communication tool, although they had a vast and rich cultural heritage.

Berber and Arabic coexitence

In Morocco today, Amazighs (in its dialects), Arabic (in its dialects), French and poor circulation coexist in Spanish and English, and what we think we need are three official languages and necessary: ​​Amazigh, Arabic, and French, so we see the need to clarify and compare preliminary between these languages: French: a language left by French colonialism, with a strong influence in the administration and social institutions ( education and media), and historically although it was generalized in the educational system which was French at a historical stage, it is a language associated with a limited social group, the bourgeoisie of all kinds, with the influence of very weak on the petty bourgeoisie.

French community

The existence of a French community and groups which must be recognized in their language is very weak compared to the colonial period, and what is still consecrated as a language, it is the political and economic interests of the French capital, which controls still the workings of the Moroccan economy and its foreign policy.

The need to manage the linguistic situation in Morocco

Managing the linguistic situation in Morocco requires a clear linguistic policy capable of putting an end to the linguistic chaos in which we live, a policy entrusted to all the parties concerned and to all the scientific institutions capable of designing such a strategy which meets demand pluralism and maintaining it, which will only happen through dialogue between the cultural components and Morocco is not lacking in scientific institutions capable of pressing for the revival of pluralism, the development of the linguistic map and the correction of the distortion, nor for lack of skills, but it lacks the will and awareness of the historic need for this measure.

Managing their linguistic status before the Second World War and accumulating enough experience, are we incapable of real measurement? The management of the linguistic situation needs a huge material and human potential, and this should not justify its rejection, because ending the current “linguistic chaos” is fairness for history, civilization and the peoples in the same time.

“Morocco, which, throughout its long history, is known for its long history of age and linguistic pluralism, is also obliged to approach the same language as European countries, with its Arabic language at the front -guard, so that it is a functional language, in education, administration, economics, and information, “he said. In our opinion, this solution does not offer anything new to the current situation, except the recognition of the linguistic and linguistic pluralism that Morocco has known throughout its long history. Considering that the Arabic language is not at the forefront means nothing other than to withdraw French from its status, and the Amazigh has no place in such a perception. In 1994, the French Minister of Culture, Jacques Toubon, recognized the need to use French in the following six areas: education, commerce, media, public places, public interest, industrial seminars, and in 1994.

We know that French society is multilingual because it is a very immigrant society, where French trades: German dialect is found in Alsace, Basque, Bruton, Catalan, Corsica, West Flemish, Oxytok, Arabic, Amazigh, Idish, Western Armenian …

In our opinion, France is not the appropriate model, because most European countries have worked to manage multilingualism by adopting at least two official national languages:

Languages spoken in morocco


Arabic is the only official language recognized and sanctioned by the Constitution, although it is not the only dominant language, and here we are talking about classical Arabic, and not Arabic, that is say different variations of colloquial Arabic rather than classical Arabic (classic in colonial sociology). Regarding its official use, it is the language that ranks first in education and information.


languages of Morocco and cultural diversity
Amazigh Woman, in Morocco

Amazigh is a language of daily circulation and continuous communication throughout the history of Morocco, and it has not been able to establish itself as a written language until the last two decades, officially after its adoption in the education system at the turn of the third millennium, and the attempts in progress are historical attempts that should be maintained and protected with fairness from its legitimacy and the possibility of a new resurgence of an ancient and ancient civilization in time.

Amazigh status of multilingualism in Morocco

Speaking of Amazigh in Morocco, you need an overview of Amazigh, a language that is currently found in several countries: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Niger, Mali, Burkina Faso and Mauritania. Morocco and Algeria are the most important countries in terms of interest in the Amazigh question in language and culture, for several reasons, the most important of which are:

  • The strong presence of the Amazigh-speaking population (Algeria 25% and Morocco 40%);
  • Cultural wealth parallel to this presence;
  • The strength of the Amazigh movement in support of Amazigh culture and the demand for the demarcation of the Amazigh language;
  • The power of research institutes and the revival of the Amazigh cultural heritage …

Therefore, the problem of the Amazigh language and its culture does not mean Morocco alone, as regards a people divided into regions: Morocco, the Sahara, the Sahel … To do this, it is necessary to treat the language and Amazigh culture from a holistic and holistic point of view, and not as a problem with Morocco and only, because the Amazigh question goes beyond the level of political position and political will.

Amazigh does not go beyond society, religion, history, and civilization, but basically, Amazigh has an ancient civilization as well as all the civilizations of peoples, and their language has remained within the limits of the language of communication and was not up to a written language due to several factors, and their culture is diverse: literary, artistic, ritual, symbolic, religious … The old social institutions have been studied and studied and inspired the interest of sociologists and anthropologists, as well as the village of the doctrinal elite at different stages: Ibn Khaldun, Al-Sussi.

What remains of Amazigh through historical development is language: this strong link with a diverse and rich culture, which gave Amazighs a unique identity that feels the power of ethnicity, an oral link which mainly varies from one region to another where it is possible to speak of three Amazigh linguistic regions of Morocco: the countryside; the Middle Atlas; the Souss region and the small and large atlas.

Artistic expressions of music and the art of knitting (mainly zarabi), folk dance (various types of folklore) and poetry … It is still present and strong to this day, and has grown and reinforced with the growth of the “Amazigh cultural movement”, and with the growing sense and awareness of cultural and ethnic belonging.

With regard to custom and social organization, there have been constant changes, some of which have disintegrated and the rest remain, so the main issue here is a problematic one that needs to be carefully considered: what is – what made the Amazigh culture (despite the cultural succession in Morocco) preserved? What made it a living culture in front of other foreign cultures with which I have lived in this country for a long time? What contributed to the preservation of the Amazighs, even if it is not a written language? Islamic civilization, for example, is the oldest civilization that colonized Morocco compared to the Phoenicians, Romans and Byzantines … Despite its strength in all respects, it was not able to dominate and dominate culturally, but the Amazigh culture remained self-sufficient.

Things you should know about the languages of Morocco

English is emerging, especially in larger cities

If you’re on a mainstream visitor path, the English audio system abounds. Museums, tourism companies, inns (mid-range and above) and tourist-oriented eating places all have a tendency to have the body of workers reachable who are experts sufficient in English to at least talk about their offerings and pricing. Similarly, many retailers in the Fes and Marrakech medinas comprehend ample English to name out for your interest and negotiate a sale. Despite this, few eating places appear to provide menus in English, regardless of the place you are. And most taxi drivers, even in large cities, talk very little (if any) English.

That said, English is developing in recognition amongst trained youth. It is amongst the languages delivered in public essential schools, and it is on the upward jab in personal schools.

As you begin to wander away from the large cities and traveler attractions, English rapidly will become much less common. If you intend to tour independently or discover less-frequented areas of the country, simple phrases in a greater frequent language come in handy.

French is Morocco’s unofficial second language

France and Spain managed Morocco in the early 1900s, and although Morocco received independence in 1956, French stays extensively spoken by using Moroccans of all a long time during a great deal of the country.

It features as the language of government, diplomacy, and business. Primary colleges introduce French to college students in their 0.33 year, growing its use each 12 months into secondary college and using it as the language for educating scientific subjects. Universities embody French as their most important language of instruction.

Though no longer as frequent in villages and far off areas, cities of various sizes have French-speaking taxi drivers, eating places with menus in French, and every now and then even French road signs.

Even if you solely took a yr or two of French in school, you may also locate it nicely well worth your time to brush up on the fundamentals simply ample to master a few phrases and refer to a French phrasebook with ease. And audio system of different romance languages can also discover it simpler to familiarize themselves with a little French, in contrast to choosing up some Arabic.

Spanish can help in the north

Spanish is fairly frequent in northern Morocco, and it can be a beneficial verbal exchange complement when trying to make reservations, navigate transactions and apprehend directions. It’s specifically available if you choose to hop over one of the land borders into Ceuta or Melilla, each independent Spanish city on Morocco’s northern coast.

Darija is the Moroccan Arabic differs from Classical Arabic.

Morocco’s reputable language is classical Arabic, which is the popular Arabic spoken via tons of the Middle East. However, Morocco’s special dialect of Arabic is what the populace speaks.

If you decide to study fundamental Arabic in practice for your trip, make positive you examine Moroccan Arabic, specifically. While Moroccans apprehend trendy Arabic, it may additionally no longer assist you to apprehend Moroccans.

Although gaining knowledge of some Arabic can assist you to talk extra without problems all through the country, it is now not sincerely crucial for playing your visit. If you can communicate some French, are knowledgeable with animated gestures, graph to remain in massive cities or visitor mainstays, or have different preparations to assist you to get around (e.g., journeying with an information or tour group), then you’ll do properly with a few easy phrases that absolutely exhibit that you’re inclined to try.



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